A Tour Through Your Car’s Exhaust System
When the air-fuel mixture in your engine’s cylinders is ignited, the combustion process produces harmful gases. Your exhaust system is responsible for making sure these gases are cleaned of most of their harmful elements before exiting through the tailpipe. Along the way, the exhaust passes several components, including the exhaust manifold, catalytic converter, and muffler. Each plays a role in keeping you and your passengers safe from the emissions leaving your engine.
We’ll take a closer look at each component in this article. We’ll go step by step so you’ll know how to inspect the system thoroughly if you suspect there is a problem. You’ll also learn about common issues that may affect your exhaust system.
Your vehicle’s engine might have four, six, eight, or more cylinders. Inside each, a piston moves up and down, compressing air and fuel to help generate the powerful combustion that results when the spark plug “lights.” Every time the spark plug “lights,” the air-fuel mixture within each cylinder ignites, producing the gases containing the harmful emissions.
Your car’s exhaust manifold is located near the cylinder head. It is tasked with making sure the exhaust produced in each cylinder mergers into a single exhaust pipe. It maintains a high temperature during operation, which helps to burn any unburned gases that leave the cylinders.
Inside the exhaust manifold is an oxygen sensor. As the gases pass through, the sensor monitors the level of oxygen present. It sends the data to your car’s computer, which modifies the amount of fuel that reaches your engine. This helps to prevent – or correct – and air-fuel mixture that is too lean or rich.
The vapors that escape your engine’s cylinders contain three emissions that are regulated by the government: hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. All are harmful, either to people, the environment, or both. For this reason, modern vehicles are designed with catalytic converters.
Your catalytic converter is responsible for minimizing the amount of harmful emissions present in the exhaust before it leaves through the tailpipe. It accomplishes this with a ceramic filter. The filter is coated with special compounds that activate once a specific temperature is reached (typically, between 400 and 600 degrees Fahrenheit). These compounds essentially strip the harmful emissions from the exhaust, and convert them into less harmful elements, such as water. By the time the exhaust leaves your tailpipe, it has been “cleaned” of most emissions.
Your muffler is designed to reduce the noise produced by the exhaust leaving your engine. Keep in mind the combustion process each cylinder undergoes is essentially part of a series of precision-timed explosions occuring in your engine. The level of noise generated by this process is substantial. This is the reason a vehicle that lacks a muffler can be heard from a long distance.
Exhaust And Tailpipe
From your cylinders to the rear of your vehicle extends the exhaust pipe. This is the path burned gases travel as they leave your engine. They pass the exhaust manifold, and go through the catalytic converter and muffler prior to leaving the tailpipe.
Potential Problems That May Affect The Exhaust System
One of the most common problems of the exhaust system involves leaks. They can occur at any point along the exhaust pipe, starting at the connection between the cylinders and exhaust manifold. Leaks in this area are usually due to the stress that results from constant thermal expansion during operation.
Leaks can also happen where the pipe meets the muffler, or from within the muffler itself. In the latter case, the problem can usually be traced to corrosion that forms inside the muffler. This often happens when a car is used primarily for short trips. In such cases, the exhaust system fails to reach a sufficient temperature to effectively burn off the condensation. Moisture thus remains within the muffler, and slowly corrodes it from the inside.
If you suspect a problem with your vehicle’s exhaust system, inspect each component for signs of leaks or damage. Begin at the engine, and test each part as you work your way back toward the tailpipe.